Tuesday, March 17, 2020
The theme in BorgesÃ¢â¬â¢ Borges and I is double personality. Throughout the work Borges seems to be describing himself as a normal person and as his true self, the writer. He has a problem with this other man who he describes. In the end Borges lets him self-go and shows us the writer. In the beginning of the poem Borges gives us insight into what he likes then wittingly states, Ã¢â¬Å"the other man shows these likesÃ¢â¬ This means that he possibly sees himself as two different people that like the same things. He then says Ã¢â¬Å"but in a showy way that turns them into stagy mannerismsÃ¢â¬ that is implying that he maybe has a problem with this other man. In the middle of the writing Borges tells us how he Ã¢â¬Å"lets myself live, so that Borges can weave his tales and poemsÃ¢â¬ meaning Borges the normal person is letting his desire for being a writer free. Towards the end of the work Borges is completely writing out of the view of himself, the writer. He ends the work with Ã¢â¬Å"which of us is writing this page I donÃ¢â¬â¢t knowÃ¢â¬ that is clearly a comment of his ability of writing in another person. Borges could possibly have a mild case of schizophrenia, which actually enhances his writing.... Free Essays on Borges And I Free Essays on Borges And I The theme in BorgesÃ¢â¬â¢ Borges and I is double personality. Throughout the work Borges seems to be describing himself as a normal person and as his true self, the writer. He has a problem with this other man who he describes. In the end Borges lets him self-go and shows us the writer. In the beginning of the poem Borges gives us insight into what he likes then wittingly states, Ã¢â¬Å"the other man shows these likesÃ¢â¬ This means that he possibly sees himself as two different people that like the same things. He then says Ã¢â¬Å"but in a showy way that turns them into stagy mannerismsÃ¢â¬ that is implying that he maybe has a problem with this other man. In the middle of the writing Borges tells us how he Ã¢â¬Å"lets myself live, so that Borges can weave his tales and poemsÃ¢â¬ meaning Borges the normal person is letting his desire for being a writer free. Towards the end of the work Borges is completely writing out of the view of himself, the writer. He ends the work with Ã¢â¬Å"which of us is writing this page I donÃ¢â¬â¢t knowÃ¢â¬ that is clearly a comment of his ability of writing in another person. Borges could possibly have a mild case of schizophrenia, which actually enhances his writing....
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of globalization Globalization can be defined in a variety of ways since it is a very important term as it influences the global economies. It can be defined as the movement toward communications, financial, economic, and trade integration. Globalization entails opening out beyond nationalistic and local perspectives to a wider outlook of an interdependent and interconnected world through free transfer of goods, services, and capital over national frontiers. Globalization is a term that is frequently employed to place a trend in the direction of increased flow of ideas, money, goods, and services across national borders and the resultant consolidation of the global economy (Waters 2001, pg.36). Globalization is closely related to international trade which can be defined as the exchange of goods, services, and capital across territories or national border. The increase in the international trade enhances the continuance of globalization. If there were no international trade, then apparently nations w ould not get access to the variety of goods and services produced in different nations of the world (World Bank 2008, pg.56). It has been found that globalization does not involve unhindered labor movement, and as intimated by some economists, globalization may hurt fragile or smaller economies if practiced indiscriminately. Globalization is generally recognized as being goaded by a combination of technological, political, economic, biological and socio-cultural factors. From some other perspective, globalization can refer to the multinational circulation of languages, popular culture, or ideas by acculturation (Tomlinson 1999, pg. 123). This paper will provide an outstanding analysis of the weaknesses and strengths the term globalization. Strengths of globalization Supporters of globalization contend that globalization can possibly better the world economically by solving many problems which are deep-seated for example poverty and unemployment. According to the economic theory, inc reased globalization will lower the wage of unskilled labor in developed nations and raise the wage of unskilled labor within the developing nations as the two groups start to trade with each other. Globalization generates resources and encourages the transfer of ideas that can be utilized for both individual and community improvement. Among many other things, globalization makes rural economic diversification and agricultural productivity gains more achievable. Globalization also makes environmental stewardship, improved conditions of living, and food security more attainable. Due to globalization, the marginal can now get the opportunity to exhibit themselves in the world market (Bauman 1998, pg.121). Globalization encourages the industrialized nations to provide significant market places for exports of poor individuals within poor countries. The global agricultural and food companies can assist the third world countries incorporate required safety, and quality practices by gettin g access to markets in developed nations. Since globalization means delocalization of various enterprises within the word, many people can get access to many industries and in due course globalization promotes economic growth in the global world, brings about competition among companies, enables producers and retailers to reduce the prices of various commodities so that consumers can afford them and therefore increases the demand on the commodities. Because of the increased efficiency, the welfare is raised by offering more affordable goods and services such that the purchasing power is increased. Globalization reallocates capital and labor to more efficient and effective lines of production. Globalization helps poor countries by infusions of technology and foreign capital which enhances economic development. The economic development due to globalization brings modern ways of connecting people, from roads to electricity to telecommunications. The global companies offer training to e mployees and provide time, money and talent that helps them to address needs of the community, lifting communal and individual aspirations and providing ways for accomplishing them. Since globalization brings about spreading of prosperity, it enables various countries to possess conditions in which respect for human right and democracy can flourish (Appadurai 1996, pg.65).
Thursday, February 13, 2020
The Loyalty Effect of the Tesco Club-Card Toward its Members - Essay Example The marketer factor is also much considered in customer retention while with customer loyalty, the intrapersonal part of customer behaviour is the point of consideration. Moreover, many other reasons were found to prod customers to buy outside of loyalty, for example during sudden change of prices, or when there is a risk involved, or because there is no other choice(www.bestofbiz.co.uk, cited in Morgan et al., 2000). In cases where there is competition among marketers, alternatives made available to customers may make them ex-customers if they fall short of loyalty (Morgan et al., 2000). There are two approaches to defining and measuring customer loyalty as gleaned from literature. Rundle-Thiele and Bennett (2001) describe the stochastic approach as considering the concept in behavioral terms, with the deterministic approach considering it in attitudinal terms. "Stochastic" is defined as having a pattern that can be analysed statistically but not predicted precisely (Reader's Digest Great Dictionary of the English Language, 2001), while "deterministic" has something to do with the doctrine that all events and actions are determined by external forces acting on the will (Ibid). Between these two approaches, there appears little disagreement contrary to the aspect of measuring it (Rundle-Thiele and Bennett (2001). Some 30 years ago Jacoby and Kyner were said to have started the debate which is still going on up to the present time. The drawbacks of the stochastic approach are presented by O'Malley (1998) and Odin (2001). The rather narrow technical definitions of the stochastic approach "does not capture the full richness and depth of the loyalty construct," according to O'Malley (1998) For instance, it does not indicate if repeat orders come about out of habit, or due to situations obtaining, or to psychological reasons on the part of the customer. Instead of a 100 per cent loyalty to a single brand, according to O'Malley (1998) which may characterize only a few, customers tend to select from two or three brands within any product category, which have become their regular fare. On the other hand, according to Odin (2001), a customer who buys the same brand over time is loyal, but that loyalty is too complex to be understood on account of many variables that tend to recur at various times. As such, the concept of loyalty comes at a point where it divides two ways at their end points: loyalty vs. disloyalty necessitating the categorising of the customers into one of these in an arbitrary way. The determinist approach looks at loyalty more as an
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Royal Dutch Shells Innovation - Assignment Example There are a lot of financial bearings which must be met by the innovative firm. The process of innovating a firm involves proper analysis of the market (especially in a perfectly competitive industry) which covers from products/services to management strategies. Shell being one of the firms which operates in an open economy is not left behind in adopting new technologies and innovations in exploration, production, and marketing of oil and gas products globally. As noted by Hamel & Skarzynski (2012, p.14), the future of an organization in this stiffly competitive world is bestowed on the ability of the firm to effectively and flexible use technology which stands the potential of enhancing its innovativeness. Royal Dutch Shell has been a pace setter in production and management innovation. Through its technological innovations and flexibility, Royal Dutch Shell has revolutionized the Energy sector for decades. However, like other firms in the industry, the innovation structure adopted by the Royal Shell has certain drawbacks and strengths. The innovation management structure of the Royal Dutch Shell builds on its strengths as a key tool to satisfy its customers and the well being of the employees. The success of the innovation initiated at Shell is believed to be supported by the senior management team. Unlike other organizations (which are rigid to change), every at Shell (from top to bottom) are opposed to old school production and management technologies especially in this competitive economic era. Therefore, the management leads the path towards eliminating technological hurdles which stands on their way to success and market dominance. The level of openness to new ideas, concepts, and technologies is evidenced by the degree at which the management is ready to take the risks of investing in modern technologies both in service delivery and production units. For instance, the scenario planning strategy which has been used by the company over the last forty year s has been successful in solving energy crisis. With the uncertainty facing the future of petroleum and oil products, orchestration of probable uncertain scenario rests on how well the management is open to innovation and technological changes both in operations and service delivery. Besides, Shell uses more environmental friendly solutions such as blueprints. Blueprints advocates for electronic engines in the transportation process as a way of reducing pollution. The success of Shell is also explained by its innovational culture which promotes change and technological advancements. Little cultural residence to change technology at Shell has been essential in helping the company to remain competitive and reputable in the oil industry. The company welcomes ideas and concepts from all its staff and goes ahead to reward the employees for their innovative efforts. A perfect example of cultural innovation at Shell is game changer program and social audit (Hamel & Skarzynski, 2012, p.12). Shell has been undertaking a number of management restructuring and product quality to remain competitively relevant in the global energy market .However, its efforts are being marred by some potential gaps that needs further consideration for it to achieve its goals of greater global market share. The basic asset of any firm is the effort of human capital which equally depends on the mode of co-operating and interaction. This company has invested averagely high in technology to improve the quality of its products at a lower value creation cost. On the other side of the coin, this company has given the interest of its staff the least attention
Friday, January 24, 2020
SA Purge - June 1934 The Nazi consolidation of power was a gradual process that took place in many steps and was due to many factors, although a great deal happened in the first few months of Hitler's rule. However, the purge of the SA in June 1934 was a major turning point as it tremendously increased Hitler's power over the state. By the time Adolf Hitler was elected as Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, the consolidation of power was not having the desired effect. Hitler immediately called another election, and using his newly acquired power, his first step was to ban all newspapers and political meetings, particularly those of the Communists (KPD). He also dissolved the Prussian parliament, which effectively gave Hermann Goring complete control of 60% of Germany's police force. The police support of the Nazi Party was the backing for a violent terror campaign against other political parties, again particularly against the KPD. This campaign of terror resulted in the Reichstag fire, blamed on the Communists. Some historians believe the fire was started by the Nazis, and was all a ruse to lose more Communist votes and exploit fears of a mass left-wing uprising. Whatever the case, Hitler claimed that the Communists were trying to intentianally thwart the Nazis' election campaign. He asked President Hindenburg for extra powers to deal with any potential hazards, prompting Hindenburg to issue the Decree for the Protection of People and State. This law allowed the government to arrest people at will and also take over provincial governments, and was the first step towards a totalitarian government. It allowed the Nazis to completely smash the Communist election campaign and gain more seats in the Reichstag. Despite this mass terror campaign, the nazi party still failed to win the majority of seats in the election, gaining under 44% of the votes. However, a majority was eventually gained by the Nazi's winning the support of the Nationalist Party, as well as continuing campaigns of intimidation and scare-mongering. In the March election the Nazi party claimed just over half of the seats in the Reichstag, making them the largrest political party in Germany. However, the Nazis were not voted for in many Catholic and working-class areas of Germany. This did not stop their drive for power - they simply took control of the state governments and persuaded the Reichstag to pass an Enabling Law, which would give Hitler national power for the next four years.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This article deals with concepts such as incivility in the workplace and Ã¢â¬Å"incivility spiral.Ã¢â¬ The authors describe how the incivility spiral could occur and offer research propositions for further study. Moreover, they explain the implications that workplace incivility pose for practitioners and researchers alike (Andersson & Pearson, 1999).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The authors trace the literature on the importance of civility in society. Such literature is rich with conclusions that state that civility offers functions and moral implications. Literature on the matter likewise describes the workplace as the last bastion of civility. However, they perceive a change in this opinion, brought about by many factors, such as employee diversity, autocratic environments, and hiring of part-time workers, which affect the trend of incivility and aggressiveness in the business world (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The authors described workplace incivility as actions that are characterized by rudeness or discourtesy. They represent violations of the norms of an organization. One form taken by workplace incivility is aggression, which is manifested in acts like physical abuse, harassment, and sabotage. These acts are bound by the characteristic of intent to injure another (Andersson & Pearson, 1999).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Incivility in the organization has a spiraling effect, where secondary spirals result from primary ones. This tendency requires managers to correct their actions that may contribute to the growth of incivility as an organizational norm. Moreover, there should be efforts at curtailing incivility within the organization (Andersson & Pearson, 1999).Ã Church, A. H. & Waclawski, J. (1999). The Impact of Leadership Style on Global Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Management Practices. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29(7), 1416-1443. Ã Ã Ã Ã This article is concerned with the trend in businesses today to go global. Church and Waclawski describe how the trend has influenced schools into studying and implementing strategies relative to the new global economy. More importantly, they describe how the trend pushes corporations to adopt a global approach in their businesses (Church & Waclawski, 1999). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In this light, the authors noted the work of other researches, which suggest that great competitive advantage in the new global market could be achieved if a corporation has a good value system and corporate culture. This could only be achieved if a corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders and managers acquire a broader perspective that involves progressive ideas such as change management and cultural flexibility. Thus, the new trend of globalization led to another trend, consisting of the focus of organizations to hire people with international experience or background (Church & Waclawski, 1999). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The authors then focused on leadership style, which they believed was a good predictor of managerial behavior. They categorized the types of leaders according to their key characteristics. Thus there is a group of transformational leaders who concentrate on new directions and new goals, and transactional leaders who focus on getting the job done by maintaining the status quo. For these authors, transformational leaders are more likely to manifest globalization behaviors, given their tendency to focus on change (Church & Waclawski, 1999). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After collecting data from 391 senior managers and reports within a global organization, Church and Waclawski found that there were better reports and ratings for transformational leaders. These leaders are those who Ã¢â¬Å"engage in behaviors relating to systems thinking, change management, relationships, and learning.Ã¢â¬ Thus, they concluded that there is a significant relationship between leadership style and actual practice of global leadership (Church & Waclawski, 1999). Fairholm, M. R. (2004). Different Perspectives on the Practice of Leadership. Public Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Administration Review 64(5), 577-590. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This article presents the position that public managers need to learn about leadership in order to be effective. They need to have a clear understanding of the concept of leadership, and not merely Ã¢â¬Å"practical and intellectual permissionÃ¢â¬ to exercise it. The authors believe that since public managers are involved in leadership activities, it is useful to accept the nature of public administration as involving the practice of leadership (Fairholm, 2004). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Fairholm explains that issues on leadership often get ignored by public administration academics. However, there are now certain people who appreciate the need to focus as a practitioner would. Since there is a link between leadership training and public sector management, then it is important that public managers receive training on leadership (Fairholm, 2004). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Fairholm also explains leadership through the leadership perspectives model, which utilizes four encompassing leadership perspectives. This model views leadership as (1) (scientific) management; (2)excellence management; (3) values-displacement activity; (4) whole-soul (spiritual) leadership. The theory holds that while these different perspectives are distinct from each other, they are related hierarchically. In addition, they all help achieve a complete notion of leadership. (Fairholm, 2004). Johnsrud, L. K., Heck, R. H., & Rosser, V. J. (2000). Morale Matters: Midlevel Administrators and Their Intent to Leave. The Journal of Higher Education 71(1), Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 34-59. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This paper focuses on the concept of morale, which refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"level of well-being that an individual or group is experiencing in reference to their worklife.Ã¢â¬ The authors feel that while there are intuitive guides that tell people that morale affects the performance of an organization, there are no clear measures to support such intuition. Thus, this article deals with the problem of accurately defining and measuring morale within an organization. In particular, it focuses on the relationship between morale and its effect on midlevel administrators (Johnsrud, Heck & Rosser, 2000). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many factors affecting the morale of midlevel administrators. These include the feeling that they have no power to make decisions for the organization, and yet they are held responsible for the outcomes of such decisions. Moreover, they do not have tenure and they have limited opportunity for professional development. All of these factors affect the morale of midlevel managers (Johnsrud, Heck & Rosser, 2000). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Finally, the authors established the construct validity of morale, using three dimensions, namely, quality of work, mutual loyalty, and institutional regard. All of these were selected because they represent attributes associated with morale (Johnsrud, Heck & Rosser, 2000). Knights, D. & McCabe, D. (2003). Governing through Teamwork: Reconstituting Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Subjectivity in a Call Centre. Journal of Management Studies 40(7), 1587-1619. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This article is a study of the various factors at play in a call center, which is a workplace that is governed by distance. Thus, it focuses on the concept of teamwork, and the technique of appealing to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ personal motivations to reach organizational goals. Among those personal motivations include sociability, unity, autonomy, and the desire for an enriching work experience (Knights & McCabe, 2003). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The authors note a crucial element of team playing, which is individual responsibility. This implies that employees should have a certain degree of autonomy or self-determination, rather than simply follow directions of superiors. They agree with the literature on the matter that a certain degree of staff autonomy could be good for the organization. However, they feel that the effect could be that the work becomes Ã¢â¬Å"simultaneously more rewarding and more demanding.Ã¢â¬ Thus they believe it was necessary to further study the factors that influence the various effects of autonomy to staff members (Knights & McCabe, 2003). Makkai, T. & Braithwaite, V. (1993). Professionalism, Organizations, and Compliance. Law & Social Inquiry 18(1), 33-59. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This article is concerned with factors that affect organizational compliance. This concern stems from the observation that organizational compliance with the law is very important, considering the potential of an organization to affect large number of people. However, an organization is not made up of a single person, but many individuals with different mindsets. Hence, it is important for an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s chief executive officer to learn how to control the attitudes and performance of the organization in order to ensure compliance with state regulations (Makkai & Braithwaite, 1993). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Makkai and Braithwaite reviewed literature on the professionalism and organizational compliance, and opined that professionalism is a complex concept that requires further investigation. More particularly, they aim to concentrate on three aspects of professionalism and their effects on organizational compliance. These aspects are values, professional autonomy, and role orientations (Makkai & Braithwaite, 1993). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After deriving relevant data from the Australian nursing home industry, the authors found no significant direct relationship between organizational compliance and professional orientations. Since there was little support for the hypothesis that role orientations and values affect organizational compliance, the authors suggested further studies on the matter (Makkai & Braithwaite, 1993). Sabet, M. G. & Klingner, D. (1993). Exploring The Impact of Professionalism on Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Administrative Innovation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã J-PART 3(2), 252-266. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This paper reports a study of three major conceptual areas vis-Ã -vis organizational theory. These three areas are professionalism, innovation, and drug-testing policies. For professionalism, the authors seek to determine the relationship between professionalism and innovation from the organizational perspective (Sabet & Klingner, 1993). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The authors review the literature on the three conceptual areas. For professionalism, they discuss how professionalism Ã¢â¬Å"has been viewed as a structural and attitudinal variable.Ã¢â¬ They note that the literature define professionalism through five attitudinal variables, such as autonomy, belief in self-regulation, belief in service to the public, Ã¢â¬Å"use of professional organization as a major referent, and a Ã¢â¬Å"sense of calling to the field (Sabet & Klingner, 1993).Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After sending questionnaires to personnel directors with a study population of 209, the authors found that managers with higher professionalism are more likely to implement policies, such as drug-testing, that affect the tendency of the organization to innovate. Furthermore, they found a significant relationship between the degree of professionalism of a personnel director and the character of the policies he implements. (Sabet & Klingner, 1993). Sarros, J. C., Tanewski, G. A., Winter, R. P., Santora, J. C. & Densten, I. L. (2002). Ã Ã Ã Ã Work Alienation and Organizational Leadership. British Journal of Management Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 13, 285-304. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This article describes a study conducted to determine the relationship between a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and organizational structure and work alienation. The authors studied factors that alter workplace structure and culture. Moreover, they are concerned about understanding how to reduce alienation or the feeling of powerlessness at work (Sarros, Tanewski, Winter, Santora & Densten, 2002). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The authors noted that throughout the literature of work alienation, the concept, meaning and measurement of the term had been vague or ambiguous, which led to the variance in interpretations of the concept. Thus, they quote both the earliest and latest interpretations of alienation. They quote Marx and Weber, who believe that Ã¢â¬Å"alienation is a state (or feeling) in which the job is external to the individual,Ã¢â¬ and such feeling is caused by lack of autonomy in the workplace. They also cite Seaman who described alienation by enumerating its five components, namely, powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness and isolation, and self-estrangement (Sarros, Tanewski, Winter, Santora & Densten, 2002). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After taking a survey using questionnaires distributed to more than 600 officers of fire departments, the authors concluded that employee behavior and attitudes, such as work alienation, could be affected and mitigated by actions taken by organizational leaders. For example, such could be accomplished by mitigating the rigidity extant in hierarchical structures within the organization and thereby reduce the tendency for work alienation (Sarros, Tanewski, Winter, Santora & Densten, 2002). Thamhain, H. J. (2003). Managing innovative R&D teams. R&D Management 33(3), Ã Ã Ã 297-311. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This paper involves a study of the subject of innovation vis-Ã -vis project performance in a technological environment. The author observed that innovation is an effective tool in business, particularly in ensuring superior performance, good products and services, and lower cost. The author likewise notes that interdisciplinary teamwork could make the difference between the success and failure of a business. Such teamwork is perceived to be more crucial than mere generation of innovative ideas at the R&D stage. Thus, it is posited that a team has more chances at success if it is able to Ã¢â¬Å"facilitate a team environment conducive to market-orientation innovationÃ¢â¬ (Thamhain, 2003). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In order to determine the factors relevant to innovative R&D performance, the author sought to understand the barriers and drivers to good performance. The study led to the understanding of the type of managerial leadership and organizational environment that is conducive to innovative performance. The author chose the research format of an exploratory field research, due to constraints caused by complexities or the absence of theories on the subject. Thus, he utilized questionnaires and qualitative methods, such as participant observation and in-depth retrospective interviewing in order to understand the challenges involved in the R&D process within a company. The interviews and questionnaires he used were previously used in other field studies related in the subject of R&D management (Thamhain, 2003). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Data gathered from 74 project teams and 935 professionals were analyzed using standard statistical methods. The author found that team membersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of reality affect their behavior. Actions of a manager could affect and stimulate team behavior. This finding relative to perceptional measures is important because it guides managers into acting towards the encouragement of a project environment that is conducive to the needs of the team (Thamhain, 2003). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The author then discusses the various influences to innovative team performance, and classified them into three, namely, Ã¢â¬Å"(a) people, (b) organizational process, tools and techniques, and (c) R&D work/task.Ã¢â¬ As to the first group of factors, he found personal interest, professional challenges and recognition, and pride as significant drivers. As to the second group, he found effective communications, stable priorities and goals, effective support systems, and cooperation as important elements of effective performance. Finally, he found certain personal aspects of work, such as job skills, experience, and interest, to be relevant drivers for effective performance. Proper understanding of these factors lead to better innovative performance (Thamhain, 2003). Vance, C. & Larson, E. (2002). Leadership Research in Business and Health Care. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Journal of Nursing Scholarship 34(2), 165-171. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This article is a summary and analysis of the literature on the subject of leadership, particularly in the fields of health care and business. Vance and Larson noted that the concept of leadership had evolved over the years that it had been the constant subject of research. Thus, it has been subject of various conceptualizations and has been viewed as both a behavioral and perceptual phenomenon.Ã Vance and Larson likewise believe that it would be pointless to endeavor to reach a single definition of leadership, because it could take various definitions, depending on the various aspects of leadership concerned (Vance & Larson, 2002). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In order to arrive at the outcomes of leadership on organizations, groups, and individuals, the authors conducted a study by reviewing studies spanning thirty years, from January 1970 through December 1999. After screening articles and categorized, the authors analyzed the data using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). They found that most studies focused on the topic of leadership characteristics, training and measures. They also found that leadership in the business setting had been treated with more frequency than in health care literature (Vance & Larson, 2002). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Given their findings, the authors concluded that there is a need to change the focus of research on the subject of leadership. They noted that there are now many indicators of this need, such as the increasing demand for leaders in health-related fields and the globalization of organizations. The authors likewise focused on certain aspects of leadership with little literature, such as the relationship between leadership and organizational outcomes, causal relationships, intervening factors, and leadership intervention styles (Vance & Larson, 2002). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Finally, the authors criticize how the literature on leadership in the business and health care literature is limited to descriptive treatment of the subject. The fields of health care and business provide fertile ground for research on causal relationships and leadership styles, which could yield vital findings for the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s literature (Vance & Larson, 2002). References Andersson, L. M. & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for Tat? The Spiraling Effect of Incivility in Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã the Workplace. The Academy of Management Review 24(3), 452-471. Ã Church, A. H. & Waclawski, J. (1999). The Impact of Leadership Style on Global Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Management Practices. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29(7), 1416-1443. Fairholm, M. R. (2004). Different Perspectives on the Practice of Leadership. Public Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Administration Review 64(5), 577-590. Johnsrud, L. K., Heck, R. H., & Rosser, V. J. (2000). Morale Matters: Midlevel Ã Ã Administrators and Their Intent to Leave. The Journal of Higher Education 71(1), Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 34-59. Knights, D. & McCabe, D. (2003). Governing through Teamwork: Reconstituting Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Subjectivity in a Call Centre. Journal of Management Studies 40(7), 1587-1619. Makkai, T. & Braithwaite, V. (1993). Professionalism, Organizations, and Compliance. Law & Social Inquiry 18(1), 33-59. Sabet, M. G. & Klingner, D. (1993). Exploring The Impact of Professionalism on Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Administrative Innovation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã J-PART 3(2), 252-266. Sarros, J. C., Tanewski, G. A., Winter, R. P., Santora, J. C. & Densten, I. L. (2002). Ã Ã Ã Ã Work Alienation and Organizational Leadership. British Journal of Management Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 13, 285-304. Thamhain, H. J. (2003). Managing innovative R&D teams. R&D Management 33(3), Ã Ã Ã 297-311. Vance, C. & Larson, E. (2002). Leadership Research in Business and Health Care. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Journal of Nursing Scholarship 34(2), 165-171. Ã
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
This program involves everything I would want in a career/experience. This program would allow me to take enjoyment in educating children as well as learning and beholding one of the most historically prosperous country. In my own employment experiences, I determine that I am happiest helping for the volunteer programs involving children. I am excited to have a chance to work with children as well as fulfill my love of history, art, and culture. I have spent most of my adult life working in a job that I take very little joy from. The joy I have experienced in my current employment is helping others and providing them a reason to smile. What can top that feeling I get from helping an adult customer? Helping theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I tried several methods to find a beneficial method in reading. It was like a puzzle. We trained very hard for the whole school year. Even though the work was hard, we both had much fun together. We modify outside games to improve spelling and reading skills. I allowed him to pick books of his interest. He learned beyond his grade level. I learned children can learn very differently from one another. It is exciting to unravel the mystery and put it into practice. I examine the Amity website and see that a sound methodology is in place. I am excited to use this type of methodology. M.A.T. (Model-Action-Talk) program, from what I read, is a very logical way to learn. I would be honored to encourage children in Japan to learn English as well learn from them. For the last 17 years, I have learned about other cultures within four walls and a book. At Radford University, I majored in Political Science with a focus in international politics. So I experienced Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America through the authors word. My college career was full of books, essays, and projects focused on comparative politics. Learning and researching on the topic of Japan is fun but it is limited. It is not the same as going to these f oreign interesting cultures. It was a thrifty manner to learn about the globe, particularly if the educator themselves has never observed the country. I hunger to immerse myself in other cultures. I welcomeShow MoreRelatedJapanese Fables: The Influences1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin the place of humans. In relating fables to the Japanese culture, I discovered that animals play an important role in Japanese culture. And as in most cultures, stories play a big role also. So by using common sense, any person could assume, and be accurate, that there are many fables in Japanese culture. So, Animals are used in Japanese Tales because they have a strong tie to the Japanese culture and its many influences. If I were to ask someone of a popular fable from American culture, many couldRead MoreLost Names : Scenes From A Korean Boyhood 1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEast Asian History 11/15/14 Lost Names Ã¢â¬Å"Lost Names: Scenes from a Korean BoyhoodÃ¢â¬ , is an extremely valuable novel. The novel, written by Richard E. Kim, focuses on a young Korean boy who lives during the Japanese colonization before World War II. Korea itself was under Japanese rule from 1910 until Japan surrendered in August of 1945. The way the Japanese colonized the Koreans was ruthless; not only did they drive fear into their hearts through physical threats, they also struck fear by manipulatingRead MoreThe Educational System Of The United States866 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe United States may be looked upon as a land of freedom and opportunity, yet today we live in an era where education is still a persistent struggle for minorities in a white privileged society. 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The result is that the United States ranks Ã¢â¬Å"25th in math, 17th in science, and 14th in reading compared to students inRead MoreEssay on The American Education System1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Get an education. We have heard it over and over again. You need a good education to get anywhere in this world. An education is the one thing my parents made sure that my brother and I had. They made sure we were at school on time everyday and ready to learn. My parents want me to have the best education that I can, but going to school in America is anything but the best. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;You would think that America being number one in almost everything; education would be at theRead MoreTangled Cultures in Heart of Darkness, Things Fall Apart and Learning to Bow, Inside the Heart of Japan1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCulture is hard to ignore, for it is the environment of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringing, making us who we are as humans today. 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Soccer can be used as a sport to achieve personal and social development. After I graduated from college, I want to get a job helping others likie social worker or working with little kids in the afterschool program. Last semester I was majoring in Education Lyndon butRead MoreThe Fountain Of Knowledge Essay869 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe fountain of knowledge 1. The teacher is the fountain of all knowledge. What is your response to this statement? Why? In the current day in age we live in, I feel the statement that Ã¢â¬Å"the teacher is the fountain of all knowledgeÃ¢â¬ no longer reams true, as we live in a world that with the a simple click of a button anything and everything you want to know or need to know is in your reach within a few seconds. With dozens of search engines available and the endless information that they provide